Anti-βIII Tubulin antibody ValidAbTM

(HB6639)
Technical documents: SDS Datasheet

Product overview

Name Anti-βIII Tubulin antibody ValidAbTM
Description

Antibody to ß3 Tubulin - cytoskeletal protein used as a neuronal marker. Part of the ValidAb™ range of highly validated, data-rich antibodies.

Host Mouse
Clonality Monoclonal
Target Beta III tubulin
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Validation data

Figure 1. β3-tubulin expression visualised with HB6639 used to label cultured rat neurones

HB6639 staining revealed a dense network of neuronal processes created by DIV21 cultured rat neurones. Method: neurones were cultured from PND2 rats following established protocols (Brewer and Torricelli, 2007. Nat Protoc 2, 1490–1498) and fixed with 4% PFA on DIV21. Cells were permeabilised with 0.1% Triton X-100 followed by blocking in 1% BSA, 300mM glycine. HB6639 was incubated overnight (4°C) at a 1:1000 dilution (1µg/ml) followed by a one hour incubation with secondary antibody (Polyclonal goat anti-mouse DyLight 488 conjugated, Thermofisher 35503, 1:500 dilution). DAPI (HB0747) was used at 1µg/ml to visualise cell nuclei. For more detail please see our ICC protocol. Images were captured using a Leica DM2500 epifluorescence microscope (20x objective) coupled to a Leica DFC7000T colour digital camera with DAPI LP (3.4x gain, 15.0ms exposure) and I3 (3.4x gain, 582.4ms exposure) filters. The image was processed in ImageJ (Schindelin et al., 2012. Nat Methods, 9(7), 676–682) using the subtract background (50px rolling ball radius) tool.

Figure 2. β3-tubulin expression in various tissue lysates and preparations.

HB6639 revealed a single band of size 53kDa primarily present in brain cytosol fractions. Endogenous mouse IgGs were also detected by the secondary antibody in mouse tissue. Method: mouse brain and rat brain membrane (P2) and cytosol fractions were prepared following previous work (Molnar et al., 1993. Neuroscience 53:307-326) from freshly collected adult brains. Other tissue lysates were prepared following established protocols from freshly dissected tissue. Samples were loaded (20µg / lane) onto a 10% acrylamide gel alongside a protein ladder (Thermofisher, 26616) before being run at 60V for 40 minutes followed by 120V for 90 minutes. Wet transfer to a PVDF membrane was completed in 90 minutes using 400mA. The membrane was blocked for 2hrs in 5% non-fat dry milk before being incubated overnight at 4°C in HB6639 at a 1:1000 dilution (1µg/ml). Following washing, the membrane was incubated in secondary antibody (1:10,000 dilution, Polyclonal goat anti-mouse HRP conjugated, Sigma Aldrich A3682) for 2hrs. For more detail please see our Western blotting protocol. Detection was accomplished using Clarity Western ECL substrate (BioRad, 1705061) and a Licor Odyssey Fc imaging system (ECL channel: 10 min exposure, 700nm channel: 30 sec exposure).

Figure 3. The effect of varying HB6639 concentration upon staining in the stratum pyramidale of hippocampal CA1.

HB6639 successfully labelled cell bodies and dendritic processes at a range of dilutions in 40µm rat hippocampal sections. Method: hippocampi were dissected from rat brains and fixed overnight in 4% PFA before then being incubated in 30% sucrose (in PBS) for another 24hrs. A freezing microtome was used to cut 40µm transverse slices before sections were incubated in 0.05M glycine for 30 minutes. Sections were blocked in 1% BSA, 22.52mg/ml glycine before incubation overnight in varying concentrations of HB6639 (1:500 to 1:4000 dilutions, 0.25-2 µg/ml). This was followed by a two hour incubation with secondary antibody (Polyclonal goat anti-mouse DyLight 488 conjugated, Thermofisher 35503, 1:300 dilution). DAPI (HB0747) was used at 1µg/ml to visualise cell nuclei. For more detail please see our IHC(IF) protocol. Images were captured using a Leica DM2500 epifluorescence microscope (20x objective) coupled to a Leica DFC7000T colour digital camera with DAPI and I3 filters. Exposure times were as follows:

  • 1:500 – DAPI: 5.1x gain,34.6ms exposure; I3 5.1x gain, 239.5ms exposure
  • 1:1,000 – DAPI: 5.1x gain, 24.0ms exposure; I3 5.1x gain, 123.5ms exposure
  • 1:2,000 – DAPI: 5.1x gain, 28.8ms exposure; I3: 5.1x gain, 196.1ms exposure
  • 1:4,000 – DAPI: 5.1x gain, 29.1ms exposure; I3: 5.1x gain, 224.3ms exposure
  • No primary – DAPI: 10.18ms exposure, I3: 112.ms exposure (taken using different microscope: Leica DMI6000B with Photometric-Prime95B camera).

Images were processed in ImageJ (Schindelin et al., 2012. Nat Methods, 9(7), 676–682) using the subtract background (50px rolling ball radius) tool before being stacked and made into a montage.

Figure 4. Pyramidal neurones in rat CA1 visualised using HB6639.

HB6639 mediated staining of β3-tubulin successfully labelled pyramidal neurones in the CA1 of rat hippocampi at a dilution of 1:500 (2µg/ml). Method: hippocampi were dissected from rat brains and fixed overnight in 4% PFA before then being incubated in 30% sucrose (in PBS) for another 24hrs. A freezing microtome was used to cut 40µm transverse slices before sections were incubated in 0.05M glycine for 30 minutes. Sections were blocked in 1% BSA, 22.52mg/ml glycine before incubation overnight in HB6639 (1:500 dilution, 2 µg/ml). This was followed by a two hour incubation with secondary antibody (Polyclonal goat anti-mouse DyLight 488 conjugated, Thermofisher 35503, 1:300 dilution). DAPI (HB0747) was used at 1µg/ml to visualise cell nuclei. For more detail please see our IHC(IF) protocol. The image was captured using a Leica SPE confocal laser scanning microscope coupled to a Leica DMi8 inverted epifluorescence microscope. The image was captured using a 20x objective and 405 (27% power) / 488 (42% power) laser lines. The image was processed in ImageJ (Schindelin et al., 2012. Nat Methods, 9(7), 676–682).

Figure 5. β3-tubulin expression in various tissue lysates and preparations with GAPDH loading control.

HB6639 revealed a single band of size 51kDa primarily present in brain cytosol fractions. Method: mouse brain and rat brain membrane (P2) and cytosol fractions were prepared following previous work (Molnar et al., 1993. Neuroscience 53:307-326) from freshly collected adult brains. Other tissue lysates were prepared following established protocols from freshly dissected tissue. Samples were loaded (20µg / lane) onto a 12% acrylamide gel alongside a protein ladder (BioRad Precision Plus dual colour, 1610374) before being run at 60V for 30 minutes followed by 120V for 100 minutes. Wet transfer to a PVDF membrane was completed in 90 minutes using 400mA. The membrane was blocked for 2hrs in 5% non-fat dry milk before being incubated overnight at 4°C in HB6639 at a 1:1000 dilution (1µg/ml) and HB9177 (anti-GAPDH monoclonal antibody) at a 1:2,000 dilution (0.5µg/ml). Following washing, the membrane was incubated in secondary antibody (1:10,000 dilution, Polyclonal goat anti-mouse HRP conjugated, Sigma Aldrich A3682) for 2hrs. For more detail please see our Western blotting protocol. Detection was accomplished using Clarity Western ECL substrate (BioRad, 1705061) and a Licor Odyssey Fc imaging system (ECL channel: 10 min exposure, 700nm channel: 30 sec exposure).

Figure 6. Concentration response of HB6639 staining in a rat brain cytosol preparation.

HB6639 shows consistent results with low background at dilutions as low as 1:8,000 (125 ng/ml). Method: cytosol fractions were prepared from fresh rat brains following established protocols (Molnar et al., 1993. Neuroscience 53:307-326). Rat cytosol samples were loaded (20µg / lane) onto a 10% acrylamide gel alongside a protein ladder (Thermofisher, 26616) before being run at 60V for 41 minutes followed by 120V for 85 minutes. Wet transfer to a PVDF membrane was completed in 93 minutes using 400mA. Following transfer the membrane was cut into strips between markers. Strips were blocked for 2hrs in 5% non-fat dry milk before being incubated overnight at 4°C in HB6639. Each strip was incubated separately with a separate HB6639 concentration with this ranging from 2µg/ml (1:500 dilution) to 125ng/ml (1:8,000 dilution). Following washing, the membrane was incubated in secondary antibody (1:10,000 dilution, Polyclonal goat anti-mouse HRP conjugated, Sigma Aldrich A3682) for 2hrs. For more detail please see our Western blotting protocol. Detection was accomplished using Clarity Western ECL substrate (BioRad, 1705061) and a Licor Odyssey Fc imaging system (ECL channel: 10 min exposure, 700nm channel: 30 sec exposure). Band intensity was calculated using Image Studio version 5.2.5 (LiCor) and a graph was constructed in GraphPad Prism 9 using a 3-parameter Hill equation curve fit.

Figure 7. β3-tubulin expression visualised with HB6639 used to label cultured rat neurones.

HB6639 staining revealed a dense network of neuronal processes created by DIV21 cultured rat neurones. Method: neurones were cultured from PND2 rats following established protocols (Brewer and Torricelli, 2007. Nat Protoc 2, 1490–1498) and fixed with 4% PFA on DIV21. Cells were permeabilised with 0.1% Triton X-100 followed by blocking in 1% BSA, 300mM glycine. HB6639 was incubated overnight (4°C) at a 1:500 dilution (2µg/ml) followed by a one hour incubation with secondary antibody (Polyclonal goat anti-mouse DyLight 488 conjugated, Thermofisher 35503, 1:300 dilution). DAPI (HB0747) was used at 1µg/ml to visualise cell nuclei. For more detail please see our ICC protocol. Images were captured using a Leica SPE confocal laser scanning microscope coupled to a Leica DMi8 inverted epifluorescence microscope. The image was captured using a 40x objective (1.28x zoom), 405nm (43.5% power, gain: 658) and 488nm (44.6% power, gain: 998) laser lines in a z-stack (0.24 µm spacing). Deconvolution was carried out using Huygens Essential (Scientific Volume Imagine) followed by the stack being flattened using a maximum Z projection in ImageJ (Schindelin et al., 2012. Nat Methods, 9(7), 676–682).

Product information

Immunogen Amino acids 441-448 of human beta III tubulin coupled to maleimide-activated keyhole limpet hemocyanin
Epitope ESESQGPK (Amino acids 441-448 of beta III tubulin)
Clone number TU-20
Isotype IgG1
Purification Protein A affinity chromatography
Concentration 1mg/ml
Formulation Lyophilised. When reconstituted contains PBS with 15mM sodium azide and 1% recombinant BSA
Predicted species reactivity Human, Mouse, Rat, Pig, Dog
Tested species reactivity Mouse, Rat

Tested applications

Applications WB, IHC(IF)
Western blot optimal concentration 1µg/ml (1:1000) as measured in rat brain cytosol
IHC(IF) optimal concentration 1µg/ml (1:1000) as measured in free-floating fixed hippocampal sections
Positive control

ß3-tubulin is widely expressed in neural tissues. It is also well expressed in SH-SY5Y, Hep G2, A549 and SCLC-21H cell lines.

Negative control

Non-neural tissues, except for tissue from the testes. Poorly expressed in many cell lines such as JURKAT, HeLa and HEK293.

Open data link

Please follow this link to OSF

Target information

Other names TUBB3, Tubulin beta-4 chain, Tubulin beta-III
UniProt ID Q13509
Structure image  Chemical Structure
Gene name TUBB3
NCBI full gene name tubulin beta 3
Entrez gene ID

10381

Amino acids 450 (50.4kDa)
Isoforms Beta III tubulin has two isoforms. Isoform 1: canonical; Isoform 2: missing amino acids 1-72
Expression Beta III tubulin is expressed almost exclusively within neurones present in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Expression has also been found within the sertoli cells of the testes.
Subcellular expression Beta III tubulin is a key cytoskeletal component therefore is widely expressed as bundles of Beta III tubulin positive fibres.
Processing Following translation no processing is required for Beta III tubulin to reach its active conformation.
Post translational modifications

Beta III tubulin is subject to three postranslational modifications: phosphorylation by CDK1 at Ser172, Polyglutamylation at Glu438 and phosphorylation at Ser 444 (note: this is within the epitope of HB6639)

Homology (compared to human) Mouse and human proteins are identical while rat beta III tubulin shows a single change (E440D)
Similar proteins Beta III tubulin shows similarity in a BLAST search to other beta tubulin family members (e.g. Tubulin beta IV 100%, tubulin beta VI 96%, tubulin beta IIA 95%, tubulin beta IIB 95%) alongside alpha tubulin (96% similarity) and epididymis sperm binding protein (95%)
Epitope homology (between species) The epitope sequence is conserved between humans, mice and rats within beta III tubulin
Epitope homology (other proteins)

Proteins containing the sequence of the epitope of HB6639 include:

  • Myosin cardiac beta chain (Mice 100%, 87.5 human) - 221.5kDa,
  • Bromodomain and PHD finger containing protein (1aa difference) 135.7kDa,
  • MAP2 (85.7% match) - 199.5kDa,
  • MAPK2 (87.5% match) - 42kDa,
  • FAM43A (85.7% match) - 46kDa

Storage & Handling

Storage instructions -20°C then use reconstitution advice
Reconstitution advice

We recommend reconstituting with either:


  • dH2O and storing at 4°C
  • 50:50 ratio of dH2O to glycerol and storing at -20°C
  • dH2O then aliquot and store at -80°C


Take care when opening as the precipitate is extremely light and can easily be lost if disturbed. When reconstituting make sure that the antibody is thoroughly dissolved by pipetting up and down before giving the antibody a brief spin at <10,000g to make sure that all material is recovered and at the bottom of the tube.


For more information please see our detailed guide on storing and using your antibody

Important This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use

References for Anti-βIII Tubulin antibody ValidAbTM

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product
  • Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance

    Tischfield M et al (2011) Cell 140(1) : 74-87
  • Mutations in the neuronal β-tubulin subunit TUBB3 result in malformation of cortical development and neuronal migration defects

    Poirier K et al (2010) Human Molecular Genetics 19(22) : 4462–4473
  • Class III β-tubulin expression and in vitro resistance to microtubule targeting agents

    Stengel C et al (2010 ) British Journal of Cancer 102(2) : 316-24
  • Proteomic characterization of cytoskeletal and mitochondrial class III beta-tubulin

    Cicchillitti L et al (2008 ) Mol Cancer Ther 7(7) : 2070-9

FAQs

What other neuroscience markers are available?
What guarantee do you have that my Beta III tubulin antibody will perform as expected?

We guarantee that your Beta III tubulin antibody will work for the applications and species we list on the datasheet. If the antibody fails to perform as expected then we are happy to offer a 100% refund guarantee. For more details please see our guarantee policy.

Will my Beta III tubulin antibody work against species that have not been listed on the datasheet?

A species not being listed doesn’t mean that the Beta III tubulin antibody won’t work, just that we haven’t tested it. If you test one of our antibodies in a new species please let us know (positive or negative)!

What counterstains do you recommend for use in ICC and IHC with this Beta III tubulin antibody antibody?

We recommend using either DAPI or Hoechst 33342 to label cell nuclei. In some experiments it is also helpful to label actin filaments in the cytoskeleton using a Phalloidin conjugate such as FITC Phalloidin or Rhodamine Phalloidin-TRITC.

Any other questions?

For any other questions about our antibody products please see our technical FAQs for antibodies