D-AP5

(HB0225)
Technical documents: SDS CoA Datasheet

Product overview

Name D-AP5
Description

Selective, competitive NMDA receptor antagonist. Inhibits NMDAR-synaptic plasticity.

Alternative names  2-APV, D-APV
Purity >99%
Customer comments

I made the discovery that the NMDA receptor is the trigger for the induction of LTP using D-AP5 synthesized by Jeff Watkins, the discoverer of the NMDA receptor... I now obtain my D-AP5 from Hello Bio. I love their products and ethos and that is why I accepted a position on their Scientific Advisory Board.

Professor Graham Collingridge, winner of The Brain Prize, 2016

My lab used D-AP5 from Hello Bio and were very happy with it. It behaved exactly as expected! Professor Kei Cho, Chair of Neuroscience, University of Bristol, UK (Hello Bio Scientific Advisory Board Member)

My lab is very satisfied with your D-AP5 quality and price. Verified customer, European Brain Research Institute (EBRI)

I used to buy D-AP5 from another company, but Hello Bio is far more cost-effective and works great in our experiments. Verified customer, University of South Carolina

The D-AP5 works as expected, great price. Verified customer, UCSF

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Images

D-AP5 inhibition of NMDA receptor mediated EPSCs
D-AP5 (HB0225) inhibition of NMDAR mediated dendritic plateau potentials in rat CA1 pyramidal neurones. Hello Bio
D-AP5: Scientist Approved
High quality D-AP5 manufactured by Hello Bio

Biological Data

Biological description

Widely used, selective and competitive NMDA receptor antagonist which binds at the glutamate site. It is the more active form of DL-AP5.


D-AP5 blocks induction of LTP (long term potentiation) in a reversible manner and is frequently used to inhibit NMDAR-mediated synaptic plasticity. Also impairs spatial learning.

Application notes

#Figure 1: D-AP5 inhibition of evoked NMDAR mediated EPSCs in mouse cortical neuron

D-AP5 is commonly used to inhibit NMDA mediated synaptic plasticity. It is often used at concentrations of 50 μM. D-AP5 from Hello Bio completely abolishes evoked NMDAR mediated currents at 50 μM and reduces NMDA currents at lower concentrations of 1 and 10 μM (see Fig 1 above).

 

#Protocol 1: Evoked NMDA receptor currents

  • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
  • NMDA currents were evoked via a stimulating electrode placed in layers II/III and evoked by a single square (150 μs) pulse every 10 sec at a stimulus intensity that gave a reliable NMDA current.
  • Neurons were held a +40 mV to relieve NMDA currents from their voltage-dependent Mg2+ block.
  • NMDA currents were continually stimulated and recorded in response to continual bath applications of D-AP5 until NMDA currents were completely abolished.
  • All NMDAR recordings were made in the presence of GABAA-R and AMPAR antagonists.

 

#Figure 2: D-AP5 inhibition of NMDAR mediated dendritic plateau potentials in rat CA1 pyramidal neurones.

D-AP5 is commonly used to inhibit NMDA mediated synaptic events such as dendritic plateau potentials. Figure 2 shows that D-AP5 from Hello Bio completely abolishes plateau potential formation at 50µM (see Fig 2 above).

 

#Protocol 2: Inhibition of NMDAR mediated dendritic plateau potentials in rat CA1 Pyramidal neurones

  • Pyramidal neurones from adult Wistar rats were patched in CA1 using a KMeSO4 internal solution with addition of 1mM QX-314 (HB1030) to prevent action potentials.
  • Cells were first held in Vclamp at -70mV for 10 minutes to wash out LTP before being transferred to Iclamp (again at -70mV) where they were stimulated sequentially every 15 seconds in the Schaffer collateral pathway.
  • Stimulation consisted of one single stimulation followed 400ms later by 5 stimulations at 100Hz.
  • Experiments took place in the presence of the GABAB antagonist GCP55845 (1µM, HB0960) and 50µM PTX.
  • Stimulation intensity was initially adjusted to evoke responses of approximately 1mV before stimulation was successively increased until robust plateau potentials were observed in all pathways.
  • Stimulation was then turned off and 50µM DAPV was washed on to the slice for 10 minutes before another stimulation response was conducted in the same cell.
  • Throughout the experiment input current was adjusted to maintain the cell at -70mV ± 0.5mV.

Solubility & Handling

Storage instructions Room temperature
Solubility overview Soluble in water (100mM)
Important This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.

Calculators

Molarity

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Dilution

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Chemical Data

Chemical name D-(-)-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid
Molecular Weight 197.13
Chemical structure Chemical structure
Molecular Formula C5H12NO5P
CAS Number 79055-68-8
PubChem identifier 135342
SMILES N[C@H](CCCP(=O)(O)O)C(=O)O
Source Synthetic
InChi InChI=1S/C5H12NO5P/c6-4(5(7)8)2-1-3-12(9,10)11/h4H,1-3,6H2,(H,7,8)(H2,9,10,11)/t4-/m1/s1
InChiKey VOROEQBFPPIACJ-SCSAIBSYSA-N
MDL number MFCD00078839
Appearance White solid

References for D-AP5

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product
  • Age-dependent hippocampal network dysfunction in a mouse model of alpha-synucleinopathy

    Tweedy et al (2018) Thessis : University of Newcastle
  • NMDA receptors, learning and memory: chronic intraventricular infusion of the NMDA receptor antagonist d-AP5 interacts directly with the neural mechanisms of spatial learning.

    Morris RG et al (2013) Eur J Neurosci 37(5) : 700-17.
  • Effects of pre or posttraining dorsal hippocampus D-AP5 injection on fear conditioning to tone, background, and foreground context.

    Schenberg EE et al (2008) Hippocampus 18(11) : 1089-93.
  • Actions of D and L forms of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate in the cat spinal cord.

    Davies J et al (1982) Brain Res 235(2) : 378-86.
Publications
These publications cite the use of D-AP5 purchased from Hello Bio:
  • Differential spatiotemporal development of Purkinje cell populations and cerebellum-dependent sensorimotor behaviors

    Beekhof et al (2021) Elife 2021 : online
    PubMedID: 33973524
  • Downregulation of kainate receptors regulating GABAergic transmission in amygdala after early life stress is associated with anxiety-like behavior in rodents

    Englund et al (2021) Transl Psychiatry. 538. : 11(1)
    PubMedID: 34663781
  • Simultaneous Monitoring of pH and Chloride (Cl -) in Brain Slices of Transgenic Mice

    Ponomareva et al (2021) Int J Mol Sci. 22(24) : 13601
    PubMedID: 34948398
  • Enhanced GABAergic Inhibition of Cholinergic Interneurons in the zQ175 +/- Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease

    Lim and Surmeier (2021) Front Syst Neurosci . 14: : 626412
    PubMedID: 33551760
  • Multiple roles of GluN2D-containing NMDA receptors in short-term potentiation and long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampal slices

    Eapen et al (2021) Neuropharmacology . 108833 : 201
    PubMedID: 34637787

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FAQs

How do I solubilise (dissolve) D-AP5?

You can solubilise D-AP5 in water, up to a concentration of 100 mM. Once D-AP5 is in suspension, if you have problems solubilising it, you can try:

  • Stirring – try rapidly stirring or vortexing in a whirlimixer
  • Heating – try warming it gently in a water bath
  • Sonicating – sonication may also be worth a try   

Temperature is very important when solubilising biochemicals. For example if you’ve cooled or frozen your D-AP5 solution, it may have precipitated out of solution. So here’s an important rule – make sure you check that D-AP5 is fully re-dissolved before use.

Do I need to re-weigh the D-AP5 in my vial?

Yes - you should weigh out the quantity of D-AP5 that you require for your experiment as the amount of product in our vials isn’t weighed out accurately enough for direct addition of solution. There are some exceptions to this but if this is the case, it will be stated clearly on the datasheet.

How do I store D-AP5?

Storing D-AP5 as a solid: If you keep the vial kept tightly sealed at room temperature, you can store D-AP5 for up to 6months.

Storing and working with solutions of D-AP5:
If you are planning on storing and working with solutions of D-AP5, we recommend preparing and using your solutions on the same day. However, if this isn’t possible and you need to prepare stock solutions of D-AP5 beforehand, you should aliquot out the solution into tightly sealed vials at store at -20°C. We generally recommend that these will be useable for up to one month. You should also allow D-AP5 to equilibrate to RT for at least one hour before opening and using.