Tetrodotoxin citrate

Technical documents: SDS CoA Datasheet

Product overview

Name Tetrodotoxin citrate
Alternative names TTX|TTX citrate
Purity >99%
Customer comments

Tetrodotoxin citrate from Hello Bio worked perfectly as expected and blocked action potential firing at concentrations of 100 nM and above. I would recommend the use of Tetrodotoxin citrate from Hello Bio for use in electrophysiology recordings. Matt Udakis, PhD student, University of Bath, UK

Hello Bio produce very high quality TTX citrate, which fully blocks NaV channels and provides good value for money.Verified customer, The University of Edinburgh

Just washed the Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX) on and it works as expected (it inhibits the fibre volley at 1 μM).Verified customer, The University of Bristol

I am fully satisfied with Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX) from Hello Bio Verified customer, UTHSC

Just what we expected. We are using TTX (Tetrodotoxin citrate) for many years as our tool compound to block voltage-gated Na currents. TTX citrate from Hello Bio worked perfectly in our laboratory. Verified customer, University of Vigo

Description Potent, selective, use-dependent Na+ channel blocker. Citrate Salt.
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TTX mediated inhibition of action potential firing
Inhibition of electrically evoked EPSP and action potential
Tetrodotoxin Citrate: Scientist Approved
Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings with tetrodotoxin
Whole-cell current clamp recordings with tetrodotoxin

Biological Data

Biological description

Potent, selective and reversible, voltage dependent Na+ channel blocker. Use dependent. Citrate Salt. Commonly used in electrophysiological preparations to block or reduce excitability.

Application notes

Tetrodotoxin is commonly used in electrophysiology to block excitability by inhibiting action potential firing within neurons. It is commonly applied at concentrations of 1 μM. Tetrodotoxin from Hello Bio works as expected and blocks action potential firing at concentrations of 100 nM and above (see Fig 1 and 2 above).


#Protocol 1: Effect of TTX citrate on action potentials in mouse cortical neurons

  • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
  • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and injected with a 500 pA 300 ms current step to induce action potential firing.
  • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM. After each drug application a current step was recorded to assess action potential blockade.


#Protocol 2: Effect of TTX citrate on EPSPs and action potential firing in mouse cortical neurons

  • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
  • Neurons were held at the resting membrane potential (~ -70 mV) and EPSP were evoked by placing a stimulating electrode close to the recorded the neuron in layer II/III.
  • EPSPs and action potentials were evoked by single square (150 μs) pulse every 10 sec with an intensity that produced both an EPSP and action potential.
  • TTX was bath applied for 10 min first at 100 nM then 300 nM, 1 μM and 2 μM whist continually evoking and recording EPSP/A.Ps.

Solubility & Handling

Storage instructions -20°C (desiccate)
Solubility overview Soluble in water (1 mg/ml)
Important This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.



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More Info

Chemical Data

Purity >99%
Chemical name Octahydro-12-(hydroxymethyl)-2-imin o-5,9:7,10a-dimethano-10aH-[1,3]dioxocino[6,5-d]py rimidine-4,7,10,11,12-pentol citrate
Molecular Weight 319.27
Chemical structure Tetrodotoxin citrate (TTX citrate) [18660-81-6] Chemical Structure
Molecular Formula C11H17N3O8
CAS Number 18660-81-6
PubChem identifier 54592378
SMILES C(C(=O)O)C(CC(=O)O)(C(=O)O)O.C([C@@]1([C@@H]2[C@@H]3[C@H](N=C(N[C@]34[C@@H]([C@H]1O[C@]([C@H]4O)(O2)O)O)N)O)O)O
Source Extracted from fugu
InChi InChI=1S/C11H17N3O8.C6H8O7/c12-8-13-6(17)2-4-9(19,1-15)5-3(16)10(2,14-8)7(18)11(20,21-4)22-5;7-3(8)1-6(13,5(11)12)2-4(9)10/h2-7,15-20H,1H2,(H3,12,13,14);13H,1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12)/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6-,7+,9+,10+,11+;/m1./s1
Appearance White solid

References for Tetrodotoxin citrate

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product
  • Tetrodotoxin: chemistry, toxicity, source, distribution and detection.

    Bane V et al (2014) Toxins (Basel) 6(2) : 693-755.
  • Antagonistic effects of tetrodotoxin on aconitine-induced cardiac toxicity.

    Ono T et al (2013) J Nippon Med Sch 80(5) : 350-61.
  • Tetrodotoxin for moderate to severe cancer pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel design multicenter study.

    Hagen NA et al (2008) J Pain Symptom Manage 35(4) : 420-9.
  • The protective action of tetrodotoxin and (+/-)-kavain on anaerobic glycolysis, ATP content and intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ of anoxic brain vesicles.

    Gleitz J et al (1996) Neuropharmacology 35(12) : 1743-52.

4 Item(s)

These publications cite the use of Tetrodotoxin citrate purchased from Hello Bio:
  • Lateral entorhinal cortex inputs modulate hippocampal dendritic excitability by recruiting a local disinhibitory microcircuit

    Bas et al (2022) bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.01.13.476247 : doi
  • Signaling pathways involved in NMDA-induced suppression of M-channels in corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in central amygdala

    Zhang H et al (2022) J Neurochem 161(6) : 478-491
    PubMedID: 35583089
  • Human Stem Cell-Derived TRPV1-Positive Sensory Neurons: A New Tool to Study Mechanisms of Sensitization.

    Schrenk-Siemens K et al (2022) Cells 11
    PubMedID: 36139481
  • Histamine receptors rapidly desensitize without altering nerve-evoked contractions in murine urinary bladder smooth muscle

    Jones BM et al (2022) Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 322(3) : F268-F279
    PubMedID: 35073211
  • Postoperative pain facilitates rat C-fibre activity-dependent slowing and induces thermal hypersensitivity in a sex-dependent manner

    Velichkova AN et al (2022) Br J Anaesth 128(4) : 718-733
    PubMedID: 35074214

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