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Product overview

Purity >98%
Description Selective, competitive AMPA / kainate receptor antagonist
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Figure 1. DNQX inhibition of evoked and spontaneous EPSCs in mouse coritical neurons

DNQX antagonised the actions of glutamate at AMPA receptos. It is commonly used to reduce excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSC) and is commonly used at 10 µM. DNQX from Hello Bio completely blocks both spontaneous and evoked EPSCs at 10 µM, with concentrations of 1 µM also effective. For assay protocol, see #Protocol 1 in Application Notes below
Percentage Inhibition of glutamate (30 µM) stimulated increase of Ca2+ fluorescence in HEK293 cells expressing GluK2
DNQX: Scientist Approved
DNQX product vial image | Hello Bio

Biological Data

Biological description

DNQX is a selective and competitive AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist. DNQX allso acts as partial AMPA agonist in the presence of γ2 transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARP) subunit.

DNQX is also a neuroleptic agent that displays pro-oxidant activity.

Water soluble DNQX disodium is also available.

Application notes

DNQX antagonizes the actions of glutamate at AMPA receptors. It is commonly used to reduce excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSC) and is commonly used at 10 μM. DNQX disodium salt from Hello Bio completely blocks both spontaneous and evoked EPSCs at 10 μM, with concentrations of 1 μM also effective (see Fig 1 above).


#Protocol 1: Evoked and spontaneous excitatory post synaptic currents (EPSCs)

  • Whole cell voltage clamp recordings were obtained from layer V neurons of the mouse prelimbic cortex brain slice.
  •  EPSCs were evoked via a stimulating electrode placed in layers II/III delivering a single square (150 μs) pulse every 10 sec at an intensity that gave a reliable EPSC.
  • Neurons were held at -70 to -60 mV (the reversal potential of GABA currents). EPSCs were continuously stimulated and recorded in response to 5 min applications of varying concentrations of NBQX disodium salt until complete receptor inhibition.
  • Spontaneous EPSCs were recorded before and after addition of NBQX disodium salt by holding the neuron at -70 mV and recording for 10 sec.
  • Recordings for EPSCs were made in the absence of GABAA-R antagonists.

Solubility & Handling

Storage instructions Room temperature
Solubility overview Soluble in DMSO (100mM)
Important This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.



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Chemical Data

Purity >98%
Chemical name 6,7-Dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Molecular Weight 252.14
Chemical structure DNQX  [2379-57-9] Chemical Structure
Molecular Formula C8H4N4O6
CAS Number 2379-57-9
PubChem identifier 3899541
SMILES C1=C2C(=CC(=C1[N+](=O)[O-])[N+](=O)[O-])NC(=O)C(=O)N2
Source Synthetic
InChi InChI=1S/C8H4N4O6/c13-7-8(14)10-4-2-6(12(17)18)5(11(15)16)1-3(4)9-7/h1-2H,(H,9,13)(H,10,14)
MDL number MFCD00069257
Appearance Pale yellow solid

References for DNQX

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product
  • Redox properties and prooxidant cytotoxicity of a neuroleptic agent 6,7-dinitrodihydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX).

    Šarlauskas J et al (2013) Acta Biochim Pol 60(2) : 227-31.
  • Selective excitatory actions of DNQX and CNQX in rat thalamic neurons.

    Lee SH et al (2010) J Neurophysiol 103(4) : 1728-34.
  • TARP auxiliary subunits switch AMPA receptor antagonists into partial agonists.

    Menuz K et al (2007) Science 318(5851) : 815-7.
  • Pharmacological characterization of glutamatergic agonists and antagonists at recombinant human homomeric and heteromeric kainate receptors in vitro.

    Alt et al (2004) Neuropharmacology 46(6) : 793-806

4 Item(s)

These publications cite the use of DNQX purchased from Hello Bio:
  • Intracellular Zinc Signaling Influences NMDA Receptor Function by Enhancing the Interaction of ZnT1 with GluN2A

    Krall et al (2022) SSRN : 23
  • LRRK2-G2019S mice display alterations in glutamatergic synaptic transmission in midbrain dopamine neurons

    Skiteva O et al (2022) J Neurochem 161(2) : 158-172
    PubMedID: 35152441
  • A Postsynaptic Mechanism of Zinc Transport Driving Inhibition of NMDA Receptors

    Krall et al (2020) University of Pittsburgh : Thesis
  • PTC-174, a positive allosteric modulator of NMDA receptors containing GluN2C or GluN2D subunits

    Yi F et al (2020) Neuropharmacology 25 : 107971
    PubMedID: 31987864

4 Item(s)