α-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) (KRN7000)

(HB3751)
Technical documents: SDS CoA Datasheet

Product overview

Name α-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) (KRN7000)
Description Immunostimulant. Natural killer T cell stimulator.
Alternative names α-Gal-Cer; KRN7000
Purity >96%
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Images

α-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) (KRN7000) product vial image | Hello Bio

Biological Data

Biological description

Alpha-GalCer is an immunostimulant. It is a potent stimulator of natural killer T (NKT) cells and a specific ligand of the lipid-binding MHC class I-like protein CD1d in human and mouse NKT cells.

It protects against LPS-induced shock and is also a potent antitumor compound.


Synthetic. Originally isolated from the marine sponge Angelas mauritianus.

Solubility & Handling

Storage instructions -20°C
Solubility overview Soluble in Tween20 or PBS for cell culture use. Also Soluble in pyridine (not suitable for cell culture). Aliquot into glass vials.
Handling

This compound is is inherently an extremely hydrophobic molecule and is insoluble in water, methanol, ethanol and other organic solvents. It is very slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran and pyridine. Almost all methods for solubilizing this material in primarily aqueous media will contain at least some detergent and somewhat cloudy solutions may be produced which are still acceptable to use. 

Some example protocols are as follows:


Tween20 & Sodium Chloride, Heat/Sonicate

  • Dissolve α-GalCer in 0.5% Tween20, 0.9% NaCl solution
  • Heat to 85°C until solution turns cloudy
  • Take out of water bath und keep at RT
  • Solution will become clear quickly
  • If particles are left, sonicate (important: sonication has to be performed in glass vial, not in a plastic Eppendorf tube) and filter afterwards with 2 µm filter

Tween20 & PBS, Heat/Sonicate

  • Dissolve the compound (0.2mg/ml) in PBS containing 0.5% Tween20 (warm and sonicate for 2 hrs. at 37°C)
  • The solution can be more like a suspension than a clear solution
  • If particles are left, warm up and sonicate (important: sonication has to be performed in glass vial, not in a plastic Eppendorf tube)
  • For sonication no interval is recommended, just use a conventional water bath sonicator at standard amplitude
  • Heating and sonication should be done immediately prior to every use.

DMSO, Heat/Sonicate

  • Dissolve the compound in anyhdrous DMSO at a concentration of 1mg/ml with heating at 80°C for several minutes
  • Sonication for 2 h
  • The solution of 1mg/ml in DMSO can be further diluted in PBS
  • Please note the compound will likely precipitate out when added into aqeous media. It is therefore recommended that the aqueous media the DMSO stock solution will be diluted in should contain 10% serum/ BSA and the DMSO stock solution should be diluted no more than 1/100
  • Further heating/ vortexing/sonication may be required to dissolve any remaining precipitate which may take time and need to be repeated

 

Handling continued..

2 Steps: Chloroform:Methanol > Evaporation > DMSO, PBS or Tween20 > Heat > Sonicate

  • Dissolve the compound in a mixture of chloroform:methanol (2:1)
  • Aliquot into reasonable aliquots for the experiment
  • Evaporate the solvent using a gentle stream of nitrogen so that you have a thin, dry film of material at the bottom of the vial
  • Add either DMSO or PBS + 0.5% Tween20 to achieve your final concentration
  • Some heating and sonication might be necessary
  • The thin film of compound generated by the evaporation step allows greater access of the compound to the solvent and better dissolution

5.6% sucrose, 0.75% L-histidine and 0.5% Tween20 > Heat > Sonicate

  • Dissolve α-GalCer in 5.6% sucrose, 0.75% L-histidine and 0.5% Tween20
  • Heat at 80°C for several minutes and sonicate

 

Please ensure solutions are mixed well immediately before use.

 

 

Important This product is for RESEARCH USE ONLY and is not intended for therapeutic or diagnostic use. Not for human or veterinary use.

Calculators

Molarity

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Dilution

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Chemical Data

Molecular Weight 858.3
Chemical structure α-Galactosylceramide (alpha-Gal-Cer|KRN7000) [158021-47-7] Chemical Structure
Molecular Formula C50H99NO9
CAS Number 158021-47-7
PubChem identifier 354334933
SMILES CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)NC(CO[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)CCCCCCCCCCCCCC
Source Originally isolated from the marine sponge Angelas mauritianus
InChiKey LSUQVAFARUJTHS-ABBGRRHVSA-N
MDL number MFCD00939559
Appearance Off-white solid

References for α-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) (KRN7000)

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product
  • α-Galactosylceramide stimulates splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and increases antibody production in vivo in late neonatal-age mice.

    Chen and Ross (2015) Clin Exp Immunol 179(2) : 188-96
  • Stimulation of invariant natural killer T cells by α-Galactosylceramide activates the JAK-STAT pathway in endothelial cells and reduces angiogenesis in the 5T33 multiple myeloma model.

    Nur et al (2014) Br J Haematol 167(5) : 651-63
  • Activation of natural killer T cells by alpha-galactosylceramide in the presence of CD1d provides protection against colitis in mice.

    Saubermann et al (2000) Gastroenterology 119(1) : 119-28
Publications
These publications cite the use of α-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) (KRN7000) purchased from Hello Bio:
  • Invariant Natural Killer T cells coordinate removal of senescent cells

    Arora et al (2021) Med (N Y). (8) : 938-950
    PubMedID: 34617070

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